Before the advent of rapid, accurate, and inexpensive DNA sequencing technology in the early 2000s, biologists guessed that genes would provide more evidence for increasing complexity in evolution. Simple, early organisms would have fewer genes than complex ones, they predicted, just as a blueprint of Dorothy’s cottage in Kansas would be less complicated than one for the Emerald City. Instead, their assumptions of increasing complexity began to fall apart. First to go was an easy definition of how complexity manifested itself. After all, amoebas had huge genomes. Now, DNA analyses are rearranging evolutionary trees, suggesting that the arrow scientists envisioned between simplicity and complexity actually spins like a weather vane caught in a tornado.
William A. Williams:
15. EVOLUTION ATHEISTIC
Evolution harmonizes with atheism and kindred false theories. This raises a presumption against its truth, as falsehood does not agree with the truth. It is reconcilable with infidelity and atheism, but not with Christianity. Many, like Prof. Coulter, of the Chicago University, endeavor to show that evolution is reconcilable with religion–and he does show that it harmonizes with the religion of deism or infidelity. No one doubts that evolution harmonizes with atheism or the religion of Thomas Paine. But why should we be anxious to reconcile it with Christianity, when there is so little truth to support it?
Many evolutionists are atheists. Some believe in the eternity of matter. This can not be. Both mind and matter can not be eternal. Mind controls matter; and not matter, mind. Hence the mind of God created matter.
Some believe the universe came into being by its own power, though that can not be. Power or force cannot create itself. It must be attached directly or indirectly to a person. No force can be disconnected from its cause. Detached force is unthinkable. All force in the universe can be traced to God. Much of the physical power of the earth can be traced to the sun,–storms, cataracts, steam, electricity,–and the sun gets its power from God. Gravitation, extensive as the universe, is but the power of God in each case.
The total force in the universe is beyond calculation. It is a part of the power of Almighty God. It approaches infinity. All heat is convertible into power, and power into heat. Heat, when converted into power, moves the mighty engines. The power of Niagara may be converted into heat and light. The sun had lifted the waters of the whole Niagara River, and the lakes far above the Falls. Its power is enormous. It lifts up over 1,000,000,000,000 tons of water to the clouds every day,–more than all the rivers and streams pour into the seas. The sun equals in size a pile of more than a million worlds like ours. Every square yard of surface of this enormous sphere, has enough heat to push a great liner across the sea,–as much power as in many tons of coal. The amount of heat in the surface of the sun, consisting of more than 2,284,000,000,000 sq. mi., can hardly be imagined. The heat of one sq. mi. (3,097,600 sq. yds.) would drive 3,000,000 ships across the sea,–150 times as many as are afloat. More than 2,200,000,000 times as much heat as the earth receives, goes out into space. And this enormous amount of heat is but a poor fraction of the heat of 400,000,000 suns, few of which are so small as ours.
A single star, Betelguese, has recently been computed to be 215,000,000 mi. in diameter, and therefore larger than 10,000,000 suns like ours. A still more recent computation shows stars even larger. Antares is 390,000,000 mi. in diameter, equal, to 91,125,000 suns, or 136,687,500,000,000 worlds. If our sun were in the centre of this sun, it would extend beyond the orbit of Mars. Alpha Hercules is 300,000,000 mi. in diameter. Some stars are so far away that it takes light 60,000 years to reach us, at the rate of 186,000 mi. in a second. Some say there are 400,000,000 enormous suns. Compute, if you can, the sum total of the power causing the light and heat, and the power of gravitation controlling these vast swarms of stars. All this power is the power of God, and a weak fraction of the total. This power could not originate itself. It could not grow. It could not come by evolution. It could not come by chance.
The doctrine of the Conservation of Force, accepted by scientists, proves that no part of force can be lost. A God of infinite power is required to create, maintain and control this vast universe. Force can no more create itself than matter. God must create and preserve both. It takes almighty power to maintain the universe in existence, as well as to create it.
If atheism be true, then, if there was even one germ to start with, as most admit, it must have created itself, unless the absurd claim that it came from another world, riding on a meteorite, be entertained. If such a foolish assumption were possible, it would require a God to create it in another world.
“The fool hath said in his heart, ‘No God’.” Some translators would supply the words omitted by the Hebrew, and make it read: “The fool hath said in his heart, ‘There is no God’.” Others, “The fool hath said in his heart, ‘I wish there were no God’.” It is hard to tell which is the bigger fool, the man who refuses to see the countless evidences of design, proving His existence; or the man who refuses to see the terrible wreck of the great universe, and the awful chaos that would result if there were no God. We can imagine only one greater fool than either: The man who thinks he can get the world to believe, under cover of evolution, that there is no God, and that all things were evolved by chance, even though it be camouflaged by the terms “natural selection” or “natural law.”
Atheism implies spontaneous generation, which is entirely without proof. Indeed, if spontaneous generation were possible at the beginning of life, it is possible now, and has been possible during all the ages. But no proof of it has been given. On the contrary, all efforts to secure, by chemistry, the lowest forms of life from dead matter have been without avail. Dr. Leib, of Chicago University, made earnest efforts to do so. He failed utterly. If nature, aided by the genius of man, can not now produce the lowest forms of life from matter, how could it ever have been done? Prof. Huxley filled jars with sterilized water, and placed in it sterilized vegetation, and sealed them up, and after 30 years, no life was seen, disproving spontaneous generation. Pasteur proved that, if milk were sterilized, there would be no development of life by spontaneous generation. This discovery was of immense practical value, making milk safe to use. Prof. Tyndall, the distinguished physicist, said: “If matter is what the world believes it to be, materialism, spontaneous generation, and evolution, or development, are absurdities too monstrous to be entertained by any sane mind.” Dr. Clark Maxwell, another distinguished physicist, says, “I have examined all [theories of evolution] and have found that every one must have a God to make it work.” L’Univers says: “When hypotheses tend to nothing less than the shutting out of God from the thoughts and hearts of men, and the diffusion of the leprosy of materialism, the savant who invents and propagates them is either a criminal or a fool.” Even Darwin seems to be conscious of a designing mind when he says, “It is difficult to avoid personifying the word Nature. But I mean by nature only the aggregate action and product of many natural laws.” A futile effort to exclude God. Who made these laws?
Can a theory that is consistent with false theories, like chance and atheism be true? Truth is consistent with truth, but not with falsehood. We can judge a theory by the company it keeps. Evolution naturally affiliates with false theories rather than with the truth. It favors infidelity and atheism. A theory in perfect harmony with manifest error, raises a presumption against its truth. Evolution seems to have a natural attraction for erroneous hypotheses and manifests the closest kinship with impossible theories. This is not a mark of a true theory.
So baneful has been the effect of teaching evolution as a proven hypothesis, that multitudes have been led into infidelity and atheism. Prof. James H. Leuba, of Bryn Mawr College, Pa., sent a questionaire to 1000 of the most prominent scientists teaching sciences relating to evolution. The replies indicate that more than one-half do not believe in a personal God, nor the immortality of the soul,–beliefs almost universal even in the heathen world. So pernicious is this doctrine of evolution that more than one-half of the professors who teach it and kindred subjects, are infidels and atheists and farther from God than the ignorant heathen. And while we are happy in the conviction that the great majority of professors and teachers of other subjects are Christians, yet one or two atheists or infidels are sufficient to make havoc of the faith of many, in a great college or university.
A doctrine so abhorrent to the conscience, so contrary to the well nigh universal belief, and so fruitful of evil, certainly can not be true. Small wonder is it that students are fast becoming infidels and atheists, and we shudder as we think of the coming generation. A great responsibility rests upon the authorities who employ such teachers.
The answers of the students in seven large representative colleges and universities to Prof. Leuba’s questionaire, show that while only 15% of the Freshmen have abandoned the Christian religion, 30% of the Juniors and over 40% of the Seniors have abandoned the Christian faith. Note the steady and rapid growth of infidelity and atheism as a result of this pernicious theory.
Will Christian parents patronize or support or endow institutions that give an education that is worse than worthless? What the colleges teach today the world will believe tomorrow.
Atheism, under its own name, has never had many to embrace it. Its only hope is to be tolerated and believed under some other name. In Russia, no man is allowed to belong to the ruling (Communist) party unless he is an atheist. It will be a sorry world when “scientific” atheism wins, under the name of evolution.
No one has a moral right to believe what is false, much less to teach it, under the specious plea of freedom of thought.
It is the privilege and duty of parents to send their children to institutions that are safe.
Nathan Leopold, Jr., and Richard Loeb kidnapped and cruelly murdered Robert Franks. Both were brilliant scholars and atheists. Both graduates of universities, though minors, and both were taking a post-graduate course in the University of Chicago. It is asserted and widely believed that they were encouraged in their atheistic belief by the teaching of evolution and modernism, and were thus prepared to commit a crime that shocked the world.
Most of the writers who advocated evolution became atheists or infidels; most of the professors who teach it, believe neither in God nor the immortality of the soul; and the number of students discarding Christianity rose from 15% in the Freshman year to 40% in the Senior. What more proof is needed?
One must invent unknown stuff—dark matter—with the right properties—the unknown ‘god of the gaps’—to get stars to form naturalistically. Without it, it just can’t happen!
But why invent this unknown stuff? There are various areas in astrophysics and cosmology where dark matter is invoked to solve some problem. But more fundamentally why invent a ‘god’ to overcome established laws of physics to explain star formation? Is it because if they don’t astronomers will have to admit that materialism fails and that there is more to the Universe than hydrogen, helium, some heavier elements, magnetic fields, radiation and the laws of physics?
A new study has found that Neanderthals living in Spain around 49,000 years ago, including one nicknamed ‘Sid’, were treating dental infections and stomach bugs with poplar plants containing painkillers and antibiotics.
From a February 2017 article:
The woolly mammoth vanished from the Earth 4,000 years ago, but now scientists say they are on the brink of resurrecting the ancient beast in a revised form, through an ambitious feat of genetic engineering.
Speaking ahead of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) annual meeting in Boston this week, the scientist leading the “de-extinction” effort said the Harvard team is just two years away from creating a hybrid embryo, in which mammoth traits would be programmed into an Asian elephant.
William A. Williams:
14. CHANCE OR DESIGN?
Evolution is the old heathen doctrine of chance. It professes to eliminate design and a personal active Creator. The theory of natural selection allows no design, no intelligence, no interference, no control, by the Creator. He does not interfere even by means of law. M. M. Metcalf, of Oberlin, O., (shades of Chas. G. Finney!), a prominent evolutionist, says, “The last stand was made by those who claim that supernatural agency intervenes in nature in such a way as to modify the natural order of events. When Darwin came to dislodge them from this, their last intrenchment, there was a fight.” Yes! the fight will last while any one tries to substitute chance for the control of Almighty God.
The universe teems with countless evidences of intelligent design of the highest order, whether it is found in the starry heavens, or in the law and order of the atoms hiding from the most powerful microscope. All things came by chance or by design. They say there is no design. We wonder that the hand that wrote the lie was not palsied. It would be, if the same Creator that filled every muscle, nerve, bone, and tissue of the sacrilegious hand, with numberless proofs of design, were not a long-suffering and merciful God.
Prof. Vernon Kellogg says: “Darwinism may be defined as a certain rational causo-mechanical (hence non-teleologic) explanation of the origin of species.” Translated into plain English, this euphemistic expression means that Darwinism excludes all design and control by a Creator. Chance pure and simple. All species originated by chance, without interference by a supreme Being. This senseless doctrine of chance has been condemned by man in every age.
We can only note a few of the evidences of design, found in bewildering numbers in every part of God’s great creation.
The Human Body. Can evolutionists imagine how the human body could be crammed fuller of the clearest proofs of the most intelligent design, indicating a mind of the highest order? Many of the most remarkable inventions of man were suggested by the wonderful contrivances found in the human body. Yet they say this marvelous piece of ingenuity did not come from the hand of the Creator but was developed by blind chance or “natural laws,” without a trace of intelligent design by the Creator, or by man or beast. The human body can no more be a product of chance or causo-mechanical evolution than a Hoe printing press, or Milton’s Paradise Lost.
On high medical authority, we are told that there are in the human body 600 muscles, 1000 miles of blood vessels, and 550 arteries important enough to name. The skin, spread out, would cover 16 square feet. It has 1,500,000 sweat glands which spread out on one surface, would occupy over 10,000 sq. ft., and would cover 5 city lots, 20 x 100 ft. The lungs are composed of 700,000,000 cells of honey comb, all of which we use in breathing,–equal to a flat surface of 2,000 square feet, which would cover a city lot. In 70 years, the heart beats 2,500,000,000 times, and lifts 500,000 tons of blood. The nervous system, controlled by the brain has 3,000,000,000,000 nerve cells, 9,200,000,000 of which are in the cortex or covering of the brain alone. In the blood are 30,000,000 white corpuscles, and 180,000,000,000,000 red ones. Almost 3 pints of saliva are swallowed every day, and the stomach generates daily from 5 to 10 quarts of gastric juice, which digests food and destroys germs. Two gallons daily! It is easy also to believe that the “very hairs of our heads are numbered,”–about 250,000.
Yet many an upstart, with thousands of the most marvelous contrivances in his own body, is ready to shout that there is no God and no design, or that there has been no interference since creation, and that our bodies have reached the dizzy heights of perfection, without intelligence, purpose or design. Absurd in the highest degree! “We are fearfully and wonderfully made.”
The Eye. Darwin says, “To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I frankly confess absurd in the highest degree.” (Italics ours). After admitting that it “seems absurd in the highest degree,” he proceeds, as if it were certainly true. Darwin has been admired for his candor, but not for his consistency. After admitting that an objection is insuperable, he goes on as if it had little or no weight. And many of his followers take the same unscientific attitude. They try to establish their theory in spite of overwhelming arguments.
“Reason tells me,” he says, “that if numerous gradations from a simple and imperfect eye, to one complex and perfect, can be shown to exist, such gradation being useful to its possessor, as is certainly the case” (certainly?), “if further,” he continues, “the eye varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case” (most modern evolutionists say certainly not the case; what, if variations are unfavorable?); “And if such variations should be useful, (what if not useful?) to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed by natural selection, though insuperable to the imagination (Italics ours) should not be considered as subversive of the theory”!! Darwin undertakes a task far too great for his mighty genius. “Believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed” is many moral leagues from proving that it was so formed. We must have stronger proof than sufficient to lead us to believe that such an eye could possibly be so formed. All proof is exhausted in the struggle to prove the possibility of the formation of so marvelous an eye, to say nothing of the probability, much less the certainty required by science. We hold evolutionists to the necessity of proving that the eye was certainly so formed. We demand it. Otherwise, we shall certainly “consider it subversive of the theory.” And if acquired by one species, how could it benefit another species? But we must contest the claim that the wonderful eye of man and animals could have been formed by evolution. Darwin’s whole theory aims to account for all creation, with its super-abundant evidences of design, by natural selection, which works without design and without intelligence. The theory is founded upon the monstrous assumption that unintelligent animals and plants, can, by aimless effort arrive at such perfection as the organs of the human body, exceeding anything in mechanical contrivance, invented to date by the genius of man. Indeed, that wonderful invention of the telescope is but a poor imitation of the eye, and does not begin to equal it in marvelous design. Who would say that the telescope might have been constructed by chance, or the fortuitous concurrence of atoms, or by natural selection, or any other attempted method of blotting out the great intelligent Designer of the universe? It not only “seems absurd in the highest degree,” but certainly is, and is fatal to the theory.
The eye is so wonderful in its powers, and delicate adjustments, that we stand amazed at the evidences of design, and at the wisdom of the Maker of the eye, far exceeding the highest inventive genius of man. To say that this is the result of “natural selection,” is absurd and ridiculous. Evolution eliminates design, mind, and an active and ever present God, and substitutes blind chance or natural selection, dubs it “science” and asks the world to believe it!
According to the evolution theory, the gain in the mechanism of the eye causes its possessors to survive, and others to die. Is that true? Are there not many species that survive, whose eyes are less perfect than the eye of man? Indeed, it is claimed that many animals have eyes superior to man. If so, why did man survive and become the dominant species, with eyes less perfect? The compound eyes of some species are superior in some respects, as every one knows, who has ever tried to slip up on a fly. A scientist says that fleas have such perfect vision that the darkness under the bed clothes is to them a glaring light.
Darwin makes a fatal admission, when he says, “To arrive, however, at a conclusion regarding the formation of the eye with all its marvelous yet not absolutely perfect characters, it is indispensable that the reason should conquer the imagination; But I have felt the difficulty far too keenly to be surprised at others hesitating to extend the principle of natural selection to so startling a length.” (Italics ours). No wonder the reason and judgment of mankind revolts against such a theory and that so many evolutionists themselves reject it.
Three or four per cent. of the population are color blind–“red-blind” –and are not able to distinguish the color of the green leaves from that of the red ripe cherries. Can it be possible that the eye becomes more perfect, because those who had less perfect eyes perished, and only those who could recognize colors survive until color blindness is finally eliminated? Is such a doctrine scientific? Is it more reasonable to believe it than to believe that an infinitely wise and powerful God created this organ of marvelous value and beauty? Of course, the ability to recognize color is only one of the many perfections of the eye.
Evolution is made so much more incredible, because it teaches that every permanent improvement in the eye is made at the expense of multitudes of individuals that perished because of the lack of the improvement. The defect perished only because all individuals afflicted with it perished. Is this true?
The bureau of education of the U.S. government reports that, of 22,000,000 school children examined, 5,000,000 have defective eyes; 1,000,000, defective hearing; 1,000,000 have active tuberculosis; 250,000, heart trouble; 3,000,000 to 5,000,000 are underfed; total, 12,250,000,–more than half. Must all these defectives perish in order that man may reach perfection? Less than half are the “fittest” and they only could survive.
Location of organs. But if the evolutionist could convince the thoughtful student that the marvelous eye could have been so formed, by blind chance or natural selection, how could he account for the advantageous location of the eye and other organs? While we can not well name a fraction small enough to express the mathematical probability of the formation of the eye, the ear, and other organs of the body, we easily can compute the fraction of the probability of their location, though very small. In the passage quoted from Darwin, he begins with the simple eye, but does not say how the eye originated. Hon. William J. Bryan in his book, “In His Image,” p. 97, says, “But how does the evolutionist explain the eye, when he leaves God out? Here is the only guess that I have seen,–if you find any others, I shall be glad to know of them, as I am collecting the guesses of the evolutionists. The evolutionist guesses that there was a time when eyes were unknown–that is a necessary part of the hypothesis. And since the eye is a universal possession, among living things, the evolutionist guesses that it came into being,–not by design or act of God–I will give you the guess,–a piece of pigment, or as some say, a freckle, appeared upon the skin of an animal that had no eyes. This piece of pigment or freckle converged the rays of the sun upon that spot, and when the little animal felt the heat on that spot, it turned the spot to the sun to get more heat. This increased heat irritated the skin,–so the evolutionists guess–and a nerve came there and out of the nerve came the eye. Can you beat it? But this only accounts for one eye; there must have been another piece of pigment or freckle soon afterward, and just in the right place in order to give the animal two eyes.”
Now assuming, what seems an utter impossibility, that the wonderful mechanism of the eye can be accounted for by chance or natural selection (another name for chance since design is excluded), how can we account for the location of the eyes, and, in fact, of all the other organs of the body? We can easily calculate the mathematical probability on the basis of natural selection. There are from 2500 to 3500 square inches of surface to the human body, a space easily 3000 times the space occupied by an eye. The eye, by the laws of probability, is just as likely to be located any where else, and has one chance out of 3000 to be located where it is. But out, of our abundant margin, we will concede the chance to be one out of 1000, and hence its mathematical probability is .001. For mathematical probability includes possibility and even improbability. The compound probability of two things happening together is ascertained by multiplying together their fractions of probability. Now the probability of the location of the second eye where it is, also is .001. And the compound probability of the location of both eyes where they are, is .001 x .001 or .000,001. In like manner, the probability of the location of each ear where it is, is .001, and of the two ears .000,001. The compound probability of the location of two eyes and two ears where they are, is .000001 x .000001 or .000,000,000,001. The two eyes and two ears have but one chance out of a trillion or a million million to be located where they are. The location of the mouth, the nose, and every organ of the body diminishes this probability a thousand fold. We are speaking mildly when we say that this calculation proves that the evolution of the body, by chance or natural selection, has not one chance in a million to be true. So ruthlessly does the pure and reliable science of mathematics shatter the theory of evolution, which so called scientists claim is as firmly established as the law of gravitation.
Concerning the wild guess of the development of the legs, we again quote from Mr. Bryan, “In His Image,” p. 98: “And according to the evolutionist, there was a time when animals had no legs, and so the legs came by accident. How? Well, the guess is that a little animal was wiggling along on its belly one day, when it discovered a wart–it just happened so,–and it was in the right place to be used to aid it in locomotion; so, it came to depend upon the wart, and use finally developed it into a leg. And then another wart, and another leg, at the proper time–by accident–and accidentally in the proper place. Is it not astonishing that any person, intelligent enough to teach school, would talk such tommyrot to students, and look serious while doing so?”
Some one has counted that Darwin has used phrases of doubt, like “We may well suppose,” 800 times in his two principal works. The whole theory is built up on guesses and suppositions. “Let us suppose” that each guess is 95 per cent certain, which is far higher than the average or any. The compound probability would equal .95 raised to the 800th power which would be .000,000,000,000,000,006,281 which means there are 6 chances out of a quintillion that evolution is true. Since not all of these 800 suppositions are dependent upon each other, we are willing to multiply this result by 10,000,000,000 which still shows that the theory has less than one chance in a million to be true. Darwin himself says, “The belief that an organ so perfect as the eye could have been formed by natural selection, is more than enough to STAGGER ANY ONE.” Yet he and his followers refuse to be “staggered,” and proceed to argue as if this unanswerable objection had little or no weight. Any hypothesis is weakened or damaged by every support that is an uncertain guess. Gravitation has no such support.
Mr. Alfred W. McCann, in his great volume “God or Gorilla,” shows that H. G. Wells, the novelist alias historian(?), in his “Outline of History,” uses 103 pages to show man’s descent from an ape-like ancestry, and employs 96 expressions of doubt or uncertainty, such as “probably,” “perhaps,” “possibly,” etc. He does not hesitate to endorse the wildest guesses of the evolutionists, and sits upon the top of this pyramid of doubt, and proclaims, ex cathedra, apparently without a blush, of our ancestors: “It was half-ape, half-monkey [elsewhere, he says the lemur was our ancestor]. It clambered about the trees and ran, and probably ran well, on its hind legs upon the ground. It was small brained by our present standards, but it had clever hands with which it handled fruit and beat nuts upon the rocks, and perhaps caught up sticks and stones to smite its fellows. IT WAS OUR ANCESTOR.”!!!
And he does not hesitate to give a picture of our ancestor drawn by an artist 500,000 years after its death. Yet this book so dangerous, so anti-christian, and so untruthful concerning the origin of man, is recommended by careless librarians, by scholars, and even by Christians. It will take a long time to erase from the mind of the youth, the false teachings of this book. It is one of the most cunningly devised plans ever attempted to teach infidelity and atheism in the name of history.
Plans for man prove design. All nature is crowded with evidence that God intended to create man. He made great preparation for his coming. He provided many things useful to man but to no other species. Veins of coal, almost innumerable–the canned sunshine of past ages–, are placed near the earth’s surface, accessible for man, when needed for his use. Of no value whatever to any other species, because they can not make or replenish a fire. A colored preacher did not miss the mark, when he said, “God stored his coal in his great big cellar for the use of man.” The man who fills his own cellar with provisions for the winter exhibits no more foresight or design.
The oil and gas were also evidently stored away in the earth for the use of man. It is worth nothing to animals. Over 41,000,000,000 gallons of oil were consumed in the U.S. in 1924.
All the other minerals likewise were stored in the earth for the use of man alone,–iron, copper, gold, silver, all the valuable minerals,–knowing that man would make use of them. The most precious and most useful minerals are of no value whatever to any species of animals. God foresaw the marvelous inventions of the present and the future, and provided the means ages ahead of time. The universe is crowded so full of design, that there is no room for chance or natural selection.